I wrote this packet with the intention of giving women who plan on using epidural anesthesia the information they need to make an informed choice. Whenever possible I've tried to use "evidence based care" when making suggestions or giving information. My resources include the above bibliographies and endnotes, Internet resources, my own observations and practice as a certified doula, and conversations with local obstetricians, midwives, and childbirth educators.




This information should in no way replace the guidance and suggestions of your care provider. Please use this information as a basis for conversation with your care provider, and to build consensus and agreement about how your labor and birth are to be managed. Always share your concerns with your care provider and create a plan together that meets both your needs.


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Kim Palena James, CD(PALS)

Seattle, WA